CCS dictionary

In the CCS world, many abbreviations and words are used, and it is not always obvious how to write or what the meaning is. Gassnova has therefore created a dictionary that we hope may be useful. Please let us know if you have any feedback and suggestions for new words and explanations that should be included in this list postmottak@gassnova.no.

A

Allam cycle (process)

Process for converting gaseous fuels into thermal energy, and at the same time capturing CO2 and water. In CCS this is beneficial since the CO2 then is reqadily accessible for storage.

Amine

Inorganic chemical compound or functional group that contains a basic nitrogen atom with two valence electrons that readily will react and bond with CO2, removing it from the exhaust.

Anthropogenic

A term used to describe something that is caused by or affected by humans. Anthropogenic climate change is climate change caused by human activities, such as buring fossile fuels and releasing CO2 to the atmosphere.

Anticline

Geological feature, a folded rock/sedimentary layer that has a crest and strata sloping downwards to each side. Often a good cap rock/trap for oil/gas if the layer is non-permeable

Aquifer

Body of rock or sediments that holds groundwater in its pores.

Atmosphere

The thin layer of gas, surrounding Earth, that makes the world livable. Contains mainly nitrogen gas, N2 (78%), and oxygen (21%) in the form of O2 and O3 and bound in different molecules like H2O and CO2

Aurora

In CCS, this is the name of the field where Northern Lights DNLV will store the CO2.

B

Basalt

Rock formed from basaltic lava- Found for example on Iceland. Suitable for storage of CO2 as it reacts with the gas to form carbonates.

Benchmarking

Process of comparing metrics and practices against best practice.

Bio CO2

CO2 from biological sources, like trees and waste.

Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage

BioCCS (BECCS)

Capture and storage of CO2 from biological sources of CO2 (see “bio CO2).

Biomass

Oranic material (from plants/animals/waste) used for renewable energy. Directly as heat or converted to bio-fuels.

Brine

Water with high concentration of salt (NaCl). Possible storage formations deep under the seabed often contains brine, also referred to as formation water.

Buoyancy

A fluids density decides wheather it sinks (lss boyant) or rises (more boyant) in relation to other fluids.

C

CCS

Carbon capture and storage

The process of capturing CO2 from combustion processes and storing that same CO2 in a permanent storage

CO2 Capture and Compression

CCC

A way of measuring all greenhouse gases with a common global warming potential. The amount of any gas is translated to the apropriate amount of CO2 with the same warming potential.

CO2 management

Less common – appears to be used more generally when dealing with CO2, as opposed to specifically discussing carbon capture & storage

CO2

Carbon Dioxid

Carbon dioxide CO2 (One carbon and two oxygen atoms froming a molecule). Greenhouse gas (see “GHG”) that absorbs heat waves from earth and contributes to the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere (See “Greenhouse”)

CO2 equivalents

CO2-eq

A way of measuring all greenhouse gases with a common global warming potential. The amount of any gas is translated to the apropriate amount of CO2 with the same warming potential.

Carbon (CO2) capture

Separating carbon, often in the form of CO2 from combustion processes (from the flue gas)

Carbon Capture Plant

CCP

A facility where carbon (CO2) is isolated from the wast gas (wiht the intent to transport and store the CO2).

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide CO2 (One carbon and two oxygen atoms froming a molecule). Greenhouse gas (see “GHG”) that absorbs heat waves from earth and contributes to the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere (See “Greenhouse”)

Carbon Masterplan Mongstad

CMM

Carbon capture and storage

CCS

The process of capturing CO2 from combustion processes and storing that same CO2 in a permanent storage

Carbon capture, utilization and storage

CCUS

Also referred to as “carbon capture, use and storage. An example of usage is to use the CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (see “EOR”).

Carbon emission

The release of carbon, often in the form of CO2 from combustion processes/burning of fossile fuels.

Carbon storage

Storage complex, often underground in a rock formation, with the intent to store CO2 permantently

Carbon tax

A cost on carbon emmisions that is ment to encourage.

Cement

Product/binder used in buiding, made from carbonate rocks. In the process large amounts of CO2 is traditionally released to the atmosphere

Chilled Ammonia Process

CAP

A post combustion process absorbing CO2 from flue gas using amines as solvent. This process is done at low temperatures (0-20 oC )

Climate initiative

Large scale initiatives to combat climate change (and reduce GHGs in the atmosphere).

Climate negative

Product/process/company/country that has a net addition of GHGs to the atmosphere, as opposed to climate positive or neutral.

Climate neutral

Product/process/company/country that does not affect the levels of GHGs in the atmosphere, as opposed to climate positive or negative

Climate positive

Product/process/company/country that has a net romoval of GHGs (often CO2) from the atmosphere, as opposed to climate negative or neutral

Combined Heat and Power

CHP

A powerpland where the heat is used as heat or powergeneration, through steam, instead of loosing the heat to the environment.

Corrosion

A process in which a corrosive agent, e.g. sulphur will desintegrate the steel coating of a piplene due to electrochemical reactions

D

Decarbonisation

Reduction of carbon – conversion to an economic system that sustainably reduces CO2 emissions and compansates for hard to abate emissions

Direct air capture

DAC

Capturing CO2 directly from air, i.e not from flue gas resulting from a combustion process

Dissolution trapping

Method in which CO2 can be trapped for permantent storage underground. The CO2 dissolves into the formation water (see “brine”) and sinks due to to less boyancy.

E

Electrolysis

A non-spontaneous chemical reaction induced by adding a direct electric current. Used to separate elements from alloys

Emission point

Location at which an emission enters the atmosphere.

Energy Intensive Industries

Ells

Industries that use large amounts of energy. These typically stand for more than half of the energy usage in Europe, but they are also important as they enable reduction of emmisions in other sectors.

Energy carrier

A means of transporting or storing energy, like a battery. It does not produce energy but can be used to transport/store the energy

Energy efficiency

Basically reducing the amount of energy used for the same result or using the least amount of energy for any given process

Energy source

A source that emits/generates energy. Renewable energy source is e.g. the sun, wind, water. Non-renewable is e.g. oil and gas.

Enhanced Oil Recovery

EOR

Method for oil recovery where water or gas is injected into the oil bearing formation to access otherwise non accessible oil. Using CO2 as the injected gas will be a way of both using and storing the CO2. See “CCUS”

European Trading Scheme or Emission Trading System

ETS

Tradingsystem for CO2 quotas to give companies/factories/emitters incentives to cut carbon emissions. A means to meet the zero emissions by 2050 goal.

F

Front End Engineering Design

FEED

Full-scale

FS

fossil fuel-based energy

G

Global CCS Institute

GCCSI

greenhouse gas emissions

H

Health Safety Quality & Environment

HSQE

Health Safety and Environment

HSE

heat integration

hydrocarbon

I

IEA WEO

More commonly referred to as acronym rather than full term

IEA World Energy Outlook

IEAGHG

More commonly referred to as acronym rather than full term

IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC

International Energy Agency

IEA

International Standardisation Organisation

ISO

industrial cluster

infrastructure

inject

K

kilowatt-hour

kWh

L

Life Cycle Cost

LCC

Life Cycle Cost

LCC

Liquefied natural gas

LNG

Liquefied petroleum gas

LPG

Longship

low emission solution

M

Membrane

Ministry of Petroleum and Energy

MPE

mobile testing unit

N

NCCS

Norwegian CCS Research Centre

Northern Lights

Norwegian Continental Shelf

NCS

O

operator

Context dependent – Operator when more generic discussion of organisations/participants of an industry/process

Synonyms can also be ‘player’ and ‘participant’ depending on context

P

parts per million (by weight or by volume)

ppm

pipeline

power generation

processing industry

Q

quota market

quota price

R

R&D

Research and Development

renewable

S

Scope Of Work

SOW

Site Query

SQ

Sleipner gas field

Subsea Injection System

SIS

sandstone

seabed

sedimentary rock

subsea

T

TCM

Technology Centre Mongstad

Technology Readiness Levels

TRL

The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum

CSLF

U

Umbilical Termination Head

UTH

Umbilical

UMB

Uninterruptible Power Supply

UPS

University of Oslo

UiO

User Fabrication Acceptance Test

UFAT

W

World Energy Outlook

WEO

well

whole chain